Analysis of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Selabintana Region of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park, Indonesia.
Analysis of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Selabintana
Region of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park, Indonesia
I Made Artawan, KIM Yong-Shik
Department of Sustainable Development, Park Chung Hee School of Policy and Saemaul, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 712-749, Korea.
The purpose of the study are, to record and to know Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) which are found in Selabintana Region of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park (MGPNP), to analyze the impact of the existence of IAPS to the diversity of plant species, and to prepare the proper management to conserve the diversity of habitats and plant species. This study was conducted in July to November 2015 in Selabintana region, is one of the section areas under Sukabumi Management Area in MGPNP. This study focused on inventory and identification of invasive alien plant species and analysis of the abundance and diversity of plant species. Data analysis using qualitative analysis method were analysis of vegetation (Importance Value Index) and analysis diversity of plants (Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index). The result of this study shown, was documented 8 invasive alien plant species in Selabintana region of MGPNP. The analysis of diversity of plants shown the value of 3.93. This value shows that the overall condition of sub-montane forest in the Selabintana regions of MGPNP quite good and the disruption of the presence of IAPS therein is not significant effect. Proper management strategy for IAPS namely; prevention, control, recovery and monitoring and evaluation. The most important task is sustainable monitoring for IAPS in order to obtain the periodically data (time series), therefore the dynamics of changes in the structure and composition of forests due the spread of IAPS can be assessed.
Keywords: Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS), Selabintana, Mount Gede Pangrango national Park (MGPNP).
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background and the problems
Mount Gede Pangrango National Park (MGPNP) is composed of two big mountains which are Mount Gede with altitude 2,958 meters above sea level and Mount Pangrango with altitude 3,019 meters above sea level. In 1977, the MGPNP was declared by UNESCO as a core zone of Cibodas Biosphere Reserves. The MGPNP amongs five National Parks that was firstly established in Indonesia in 1980. MGPNP has a highly potential plant diversity, where can be found heterogeneous flora of tropical forests in diverse levels, such as: undergrowth, shrubs, short trees, dense canopy, and high trees. In addition, this area was also overgrown by “giant tree” Rasamala (Altingia excelsa Noronha), “insect hunter” or pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp), various species of forest orchids, various types of palms, various mosses, and even some types of plants that have not been scientifically known names, such as mushrooms that glow (MGPNP, 1998). According to Sunarno and Rugayah (1992), those plant species that grow in the MGPNP can be classified into several groups, there are groups of original and distinctive (70 species), endemic (4 species), scarce (4 species), species of plants are protected by law (8 species) and has inventoried 21 exotic species. MGPNP regions are surrounded by different ecosystem: Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG), agriculture ecosystems, plantations, and settlements. CBG is the place for introducing different plants from all around the globe since the colonial period. Some exotic species that was introduced by CBG have been growing rapidly in the MGPNP, and some of which were invasive plants. Illegal activities, such as hunting and illegal logging can lead to degradation, therefore the invasive plants evolve freely. In addition, ecotourism activities, for instance recreation or hiking, as a supporting factor to spreading the alien plant species in the MGPNP regions.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) describes invasive species as “animals, plants or other organisms introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution, where they become established and disperse, generating a negative impact on the local ecosystem and species.”. These impacts may disrupt the ecosystem processes, introduce diseases to humans or flora and fauna, and reduce biodiversity. Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) have a high reproductive capacity, rapid growth, and easily spread everywhere which is serious threats to the original habitats. The increase in the number of IAPS can lead to the decline of native plant species diversity and may even lead to species extinction (ISSG, 2015). According to Tjitrosoedirdjo (2013), Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) are a plant species that grow outside their natural habitat are growing rapidly and pose a threat of disruption and damage to ecosystems, habitats and local plant species as well as ecologically potentially destroy the habitat. Imported plants are selected to have characters that apt to be invasive.
Selabintana is part of MGPNP regions, formerly part of the regions was a limited production forest, and in 2003 it changed into MGPNP regions. At the time of limited production forest management, the species that are selected and grown on plantation forests are the species of plants (trees) that have economic values and tend to not considered as native species. As a protected area, the management of the MGPNP is very important to maintain the sustainable ecosystem, so it is necessary to anticipate and handling the invasive alien plants. Research to determine the invasive alien plant species will need a proper management action.
1.2. Research objectives
This study, conducted with the aim as follows; To record and to know Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) which are found in Selabintana Region of MGPNP, To analyze the impact of the existence of IAPS to the diversity of plant species in Selabintana region of MGPNP, and To prepare the proper management to conserve the diversity of habitats and plant species.
CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGY
2.1. Study Sites
This study, conducted in July – November 2015 in Selabintana region, is one of the section areas under Sukabumi management areas in MGPNP. The total of Selabintana section areas is 3,052.56 hectares administratively located in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the Work Map of MGPNP with a scale of 1:25,000 the study sites located between coordinate 106O56’00’’-107O0’00’’E and 6O51’30’’-6O46’00’’S. The map of study site is presented in Figure 1.
2.2. Data Collection
Primary data in this study are data about plants obtained from field observations, including the name and number of individual plants of various habitats; Herbs, shrubs, climbers, Liana, Creeper and Trees in the sub-montane forest ecosystem. Data collection using the method of Quadrat Sampling Technique, which is a technique of plant data collection through sample plots of different sizes at each level of tree regenerations. Sample plot size 2 x 2 meters for the seedling regenerations and undergrowth plants, sample plot size 5 x 5 meter for sapling regenerations, sample plot size 10 x 10 meter for pole regenerations and sample plot size 20 x 20 meter for trees. The samples plots are created as many as 100 units and placed systematically using the line transect method. Plants data collection was done to all species plants (flora) of various habitats and regeneration of trees that were found in sample plots. The data collected from undergrowth plants, seedling regenerations and sapling regenerations consist of the number of individuals and species names (local name), while for poles regenerations and tree, also measured the diameters as high as reast height (Wyatt-Smith, 1963; Soerianegara and Indrawan, 1976; Kusmana, 1997). Secondary data are collected from literature study, the data about the description of the research area, map, list of plants, identification key of plant species, descriptions of species of plants and other data which obtained from the relevant sources.
Identification of plant species is performed through: (1) On field survey, identification of plant species was done with a method to ask someone who knows, (2) identification of plants using a book, variety of literature, picture of the plants and obtain information about the plant from internet sources and (3) identification using herbarium. The information was collected in the identification include: the local name matched with the botanical names, family, habits, characteristics, distribution, and origin of plants (Hardin et al., 2001).
Figure 1 : Work map areas of MGPNP (Selabintana section areas as a study site)
2.3. Data Analysis
This study focused on inventory and identification of IAPS and analyses of the abundance and diversity of plant species. Data analysis using qualitative analysis method, through analysis of vegetation and analysis diversity of plants. Analysis of vegetation is a way to know the species composition and form (structure) of vegetation or plant communities by using Importance Value Index (IVI). Analysis of diversity of plants was determined by using the formula of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), is a parameter which is very useful in studying the effects of biotic interference, to determine the level of succession or the stability of a community (Soerianegara and Indrawan, 1988).
CHAPTER 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. The abundance of plant species
The prosses of inventory of plants in sub-montane forest ecosystem in Selabintana Region of the MGPNP was conducted on 100 sample plots with 10,021 individual plants. As the result, it has been recorded 142 species from 63 families of undergrowth plant groups and all levels of tree regeneratios. The number of individuals, number of species and family of plants in each levels of tree regeneratios and group of undergrowth plant are presented in Table 1.
The forest conditions in Selabintana regions is not much different from the conditions of tropical forests in generally. There are so many tree regenerations and trees with small diameters, while the numbers of tree regenerations with larger diameters tends to decreases. This condition is indicated by the results of calculation of density of plants derived from the total number of individuals divided by the total wide of sample plots on every level of tree regenerations and it is known that, seedling regenerations have the highest density reached 44,825 individuals/Ha, followed by sapling regenerations 3,872 individuals/ha, pole regenerations 467 individuals/Ha and Tree 158 individuals/Ha. As well as Sungai Wain Protection Forest in East Kalimantan, it is known that trees have a diameter of less than 20 cm are huge numbers reached 72.30%. As for the trees that are larger diameters, the percentage of attendance decreases dramatically. The conditions were commonly in tropical rain forests, that describes the condition of the forest dynamic (Richards, 1964; Whitmore, 1990; Sidiyasa, 2009).
Table 1: The number of individuals, number of species and family of plants species.
The plant species can be expressed as dominate and abundant in the forest ecosystem, if it has a value of IVI included in the top five and was found at least on two level of regenerations. Based on the results of inventory, if carried out a comparative analysis based on native species and alien species at every level of regeneration including the undergrowth plants, then it would known that the native species were dominate and abundant in the sub-montane forest in Selabintana. The number of alien plant species as many as 15 species (10.56%) of the 142 species identified in this study. Native plant species that dominate and abundant in the sub-montane forest in Selabintana regions namely: Beunying (Ficus fistulosa Reinw.), Manggong (Macaranga rhizinoides (Bl.) MA), Nangsi (Villebrunea rubescens (Bl.) Bl) and Puspa (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth). Chart of comparison based on the number of native plant species and alien plants species are presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Chart of comparison based on the number of native plant species and alien plant species.
3.2. IAPS in Selabintana region of MGPNP
MGPNP inventory activities undertaken in 2006, showed the results there are 35 species of alien plants (exotic) in the MGPNP regions, spread at an altitude of 1000 up to 2700 meters above sea level. Among them there are 6 species of plants that have invasive properties (IAPS), namely; Babakoan (Eupatorium sordidum Less.), Cente (Lantana nitride L.), and Kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. Ex Willd), Kirinyuh (Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth), Konyal (Passiflora suberosa L.), and Teklan (Eupatorium riparium Reg.).
Illegal logging causes partially of canopy cover in the forest being open and the sunlight can go down to the lowest layer of the canopy. These conditions resulted to the opening growing space for the short-lived plants with a high growth rates and requires a lot of sunlight. The results showed the abundance of groups of undergrowth plant have an averages density of 9,750 individuals/ha, it is the highest density compared to the density of all tree regenerations. The destruction of forests due to illegal logging can also stimulate the development of alien plant species of undergrowth plant groups, as already shown the results, highest number of alien plant species were undergrowth plant groups.
Figure 3: Left: Kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens), Right: Teklan (Eupatorium riparium Reg.).
In this study Sulibra/Kina (Cinchona sinensis L.) found in all levels of tree regeneration. A similar thing happened to Kaliandra (Calliandra tetragona Benth.), found in regeneration of seedlings, saplings and poles, but not found in the group of tree because Kaliandara is a small tree species. The both of these plant species, even have the highest IVI value on the regeneration levels of seedlings and saplings. The results of the analysis shown both of these species are abundant and include in the category of invasive alien plant species, so can be expressed as a new IAPS in the Selabintana region of MGPNP. After nine years the 6 species of IAPS have been spread throughout the MGPNP regions. There are 2 species include to the category of invasive alien plant species as a new IAPS, so number of IAPS in the Selabintana regions was increased into 8 species. There is a possibility other exotic species will being invasive and become a new IAPS on the future.
3.3. Impact of IAPS to diversity of plant species
Invasion and the domination of IAPS in the open area of MGPNP regions resulted in inhibition of the regeneration of native plant species. In many case, the growth of invasive alien plant, its canopy density, the number of seeds produced throughout the year as well as the ability to produce and release a compound allelopathy has resulted the death of seedling and saplings regenerations of the native species; because of the slow growth and lack of nutrients from the soil and sunlight. Based on the results of research conducted Utomo (2006) note that there are 17 native tree species whose population is threatened decreasing related to the presence of invasive alien plant species in the sub-montane forest and 19 species of native trees in the mountain forests in MGPNP regions. The population decline of the native tree species is visible from the least amount of regeneration both of the tree seedlings, saplings and poles, and even some species of which have absolutely no regeneration. It added that Konyal (Passiflora suberosa L.) and Kirinyuh (Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth) are two species of invasive alien plant species which are very harmful to the preservation of native species in MGPNP regions.
The analysis of the impact of IAPS in this study based on analysis of plant diversity using the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index. The results indicate that the diversity of plants in the sub-montane forest in the Selabintana regions has a value of 3.93. This value shows that the forest has a high diversity of species, ecosystem stability steady and high productivity. The overall condition of sub-montane forest in the Selabintana regions of MGPNP quite good and the disruption of the presence of IAPS therein is not significant effect. Nevertheless, proper measures are indispensable so that the adverse effects of IAPS are not widespread.
3.4. Proper management strategy
Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) are part of biodiversity, so that management is very much related to the management of biodiversity at the local, national and international level. Management of IAPS requires cooperation involving various institutions related to biodiversity, including NGOs and communities. Another matter of concern is to apply the regulations effectively and law enforcement, including make a new legislation especially for IAPS.
Proper management strategy for IAPS with four main activities, namely; Prevention, Control, Recovery and Monitoring and evaluation. Prevention can be done with programs such as the following: (i) Controlling the use of alien plant species in agriculture and plantations by communities in the border areas (buffer zone), (ii) Enact regulations for visitors contained in Standard Operation Procedure for services to visitor’s recreation, climbing and research, for example: check the luggage before entering into the MGPNP areas, (iii) Disseminate information about the threats of IAPS, (iv) Collecting data and information through the inventory and identification activities, including through the analysis of Landsat imagery and (v) Develop coordination and cooperation between relevant institutions and society.
Control is the effort made to handle the IAPS which resides in the MGPNP region, through the following programs: (i) Preparation of the control plan includes the manufacture of standard operation procedure of eradication, (ii) Doing eradication (mechanical and physical) in accordance with the plan, (iii) Processing the residual plants from an eradication program such as make compost with community participation and (iv) Creating permanent plots for research.
Recovery is the effort made to restore the forest ecosystem to its original condition and function after the invasion by the IAPS. Programs that can be conducted include: (i) Without treatment or let the natural succession process; with consideration when recovery efforts require huge resources with a high risk of failure, (ii) Restoration as an active reintroduction program using native species so as to achieve the structure and species composition as before, (iii) Rehabilitation as a program of repair of degraded forests through replanting and enrichment species and (iv) Replacement program; to replace the degraded ecosystems with other more productive ecosystems.
Monitoring and evaluation is a very important effort in order to conduct a program of prevention and control of IAPS and ecosystem recovery. Monitoring is done periodically to monitor possibilities of the entry and growth of IAPS in the MGPNP regions. The monitoring efforts to do are; Monitoring of community activities in the border areas and monitoring of visitor activity and making Permanent Sample Plot (PSP). While the efforts of the evaluation were also conducted on an ongoing basis to determine the success of programs of prevention, control and recovery. Monitoring is done periodically to monitor possibilities of the entry and growth of IAPS in the MGPNP regions. While the efforts of the evaluation were also conducted on an ongoing basis to determine the success of programs of prevention, control and recovery.
CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The result of this study shown, was found 8 invasive alien plant species in Selabintana region of MGPNP, namely; Babakoan (Eupatorium sordidum Less.), Cente (Lantana nitride L.), Kaliandra (Calliandra tetragona Benth.), Kecubung (Brugmansia suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. Ex Willd), Kirinyuh (Eupatorium inulifolium Kunth), Konyal (Passiflora suberosa L.), Sulibra/Kina (Cinchona sinensis L.) and Teklan (Eupatorium riparium Reg.). The analysis of diversity using the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index has shown the value of 3.93. This value shows that the overall condition of sub-montane forest in the Selabintana regions of MGPNP quite good and the disruption of the presence of IAPS therein is not significant effect.
Proper management strategy for IAPS namely; prevention, control, recovery and monitoring and evaluation. Prevention is the efforts made so the IAPS does not increase the number or spread to a wider area. Control measures are an attempt to handle the IAPS which resides in the region. Recovery is an effort to improve the condition of the forest to its original condition after the invasion of IAPS. Monitoring and evaluation is a very important effort in order to prevent, control and recovery.
It is suggested that the proper management strategy for Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) should be effectively and efficiently. The most important task is sustainable monitoring for IAPS in order to obtain the periodically data (time series), therefore the dynamics of changes in the structure and composition of forests due the spread of IAPS can be assessed.
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